Marie Claire | How open mic nights and feminist films are helping fight intergenerational prostitution in India

Sonagachi

A group of young girls huddle around a projector screen in a small community centre in Kolkata, India. A few hundred metres away, over a thousand women sell themselves for as little as 200 rupees (£2.50) to a man at least ten times a day in Munshiganj, one of the city’s many red-light districts.

Across India, massive rural-urban migration, sexually deprived young men, and high rates of female infanticide have resulted in an insatiable demand for young sex workers and forced marriages.

The girls and women in the centre are victims or prime targets of the sex industry. Many of the girls’ mothers are local sex workers trapped by debts and poverty. The girls, aged 9 to 16, have been taught they’re worth less than men their entire lives and they’re at high risk of being forced into prostitution by human traffickers, pimps or even their own families.

But social workers are teaching them a simple thing – they can fight back.

The girls are being taught about gender oppression and global feminist movements. The film Dangal is a feminist Bollywood film about a wrestler who trains his two daughters to fight men in local competitions. When the wrestler’s daughters initially line up to fight with the village’s men they’re not taken seriously and the men smirk. But the girl’s quickly shatter any notion that women are worth less than men.

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http://www.marieclaire.co.uk/life/prostitution-in-india-514614?Adwdww

New Statesman: City Metric | Mumbai’s slumdog recycling works surprisingly well – unless you’re one of its workers

Dharavi is a 550-acre slum, a maze of corrugated iron and open sewers at the heart of India’s financial capital, Mumbai.

It is one of the most densely populated places on earth with population of roughly one million people.

A casual observer would see nothing but poverty, misery and squalor but look closer and you’ll find that the slum is the unlikely home of a recycling industry with efficiency levels reportedly higher than the UK’s.

For those struggling to survive, there is value in almost anything and nothing goes to waste. Prince Charles once even said that the slum, made famous by the film Slumdog Millionaire, was a model for the world in terms of sustainability.

Over the decades, Bollywood has sold an image of Mumbai as the ‘City of Dreams’, and people from all corners of the subcontinent have travelled to the city in search of a better life. The large majority of them end up in slums, like Dharavi.

This huge rural to urban migration has catapulted Mumbai, once a small British trading port, into the global league of megacity, with an eyewatering population of 21m (Greater Manchester’s population is 2.8m).

The problems that come with such a population are immense. Simply delivering electricity, sanitary provisions and clean water to the population is a mammoth task. But there’s one problem that stands out everywhere in India – rubbish.

In India, the handling of waste is considered a huge social taboo.

Historically, the lowest ranks of the Hindu caste system have been left to deal with waste disposal and many will still consider a person low and dirty if they handle more than the bare minimum of waste. Consequently, waste is dumped everywhere — in the streets, in the sea or behind homes.

Mumbai is no stranger to the problem. Every day the city will produce a veritable mountain of over 10,000 metric tonnes of solid waste.

This will be collected in large part by an army of 120,000 rag-pickers – unofficial waste collectors – who will take anything reusable they find to Dharavi and its famed 13thcompound.

They will sell their waste by the kilo to the hundreds of small recycling plants, and a kilogram of plastic bottles might be worth 15p.

The waste will then be processed by thousands of workers employed by the scrap masters. Dozens of plastic variations will be skilfully sorted into piles. These piles will be melted down in huge vats before being broken up into tiny reusable pellets. Metals and E-Waste will be broken down and sold for scrap or reusable parts.

In this way, it’s estimated that 80 per cent of the Mumbai’s solid waste is recycled into usable materials. The UK’s recycling rate was almost half that, with just under 45 per cent of household waste recycled in 2015.

Politicians are well aware that the slum’s work is essential. Situated in the centre of Mumbai, Dharavi sprawls across some of the most desirable real-estate in Asia.

Small cuts and wounds quickly become infected as workers sift through medical waste and other biohazardous substances.

Rag-pickers and recyclers hail mainly from the lower rungs of India’s caste system and struggle to gain formal recognition from the authorities.

“Most of the waste pickers in Mumbai are either women or children and they live and work under the most distressing conditions,” says Vimlendu Jha, director of environmental NGO Swechha.

“[They’ll be] harassed by the police for not having a proof of identity. Their contribution is never acknowledged.

“There is no clear policy to protect their rights or provide better conditions. The government doesn’t even acknowledge they exist.”

http://www.citymetric.com/fabric/mumbai-s-slumdog-recycling-works-surprisingly-well-unless-you-re-one-its-workers-3096

New Statesman: City Metric | Ragpickers and camembert: Delhi’s Divisive Gentrification

Several months ago, I found myself traipsing through India’s capital in search of French cheese. Foolishly I had agreed to supply some for an expat friend’s dinner party.

After several dead-end leads, I ended up in one of the Delhi’s gentrified hotspots. A refuge for the Delhiite intelligentsia in the south of the city, Khan Market is filled with posh brands, swanky jazz bars and artisan coffee houses. And there, in a quaint grocery store filled with olive oils, imported beers and Italian biscuits, I found it: a small selection of camembert and brie. It was priced at around £10.

That, I worked out, was over three times the daily wage of your average Delhiite. I couldn’t bring myself to do it.

I left the gentrified bubble, walking down the semi cobbled streets towards the nearest metro station. A hundred yards down the road I passed a ragpicker girl dragging a large bag of plastic bottles behind her. She had no shoes, and her hair was matted with filth.

A ragpicker is a waste collector, employed unofficially by the neighbourhood or the local administration to deal with the thousands of tonnes of waste that are dumped onto the streets every day. For their back breaking 12 hour shifts they’ll be paid around £1.50. To buy a soft drink in one of those fancy bars, this girl would have had to work for two days without food. The cheese would have taken her over a week. I felt ashamed for having even considered it.

Say what you want about the social woes of gentrification in the West, it’s nothing compared to Delhi or Mumbai.

MIRACLES AND DIVISION

Over the last two decades, India’s economy has boomed, in what many commentators have hailed as an economic miracle. Fuelled by tech, textiles, two wheelers and never-ending construction, the great Indian Elephant is finally shaking off the wounds of imperialism and decades of bureaucratic mismanagement to emerge as a global power.

Today India is the fastest growing economy in the world: according to Deutsche Bank research, there are now around 300m middle-class Indians out of a population of 1.3bn. Economic migrants have flocked to the political capital from right across the subcontinent, with Delhi now boasting a population of around 25m: equivalent to around half of England.

But wealth has never been shared equally in India, and in-between the roar of Delhi’s traffic and grinding poverty of malnourished millions, you’ll find small pockets of absurd gentrification and wealth. In Delhi districts like Khan Market, Lodhi Colony, Meherchand Market and the famous Haus Khas Village, or areas like Bandra and Churchgate in Mumbai, you’ll find a version of India with a distinctive Williamsburg or Shoreditch air: popup stores, craft beers, soy lattes, mac books and fashionably trimmed moustaches galore. It’s true, the gentrification is limited – but what it lacks in size it makes up for in absurdity, given what surrounds it.

In the UK gentrification causes social division – there’s no doubt about that. But house prices aside, just about anyone in London could partake of the wonders of Shoreditch. In Delhi and Mumbai, that just isn’t true.

Make no mistake about it, India has made strong moves to eradicate poverty. In 2015, 12.4 per cent of the population – 170m people – lived below the poverty line, defined as $1.90 a day. That sounds like a lot, but it’s down from a staggering 45.3 per cent as recently as 1993.

But the fact remains that, in Delhi, young professionals in search of a bit of edge can escape into another world – one which the street cleaner outsider will never in their wildest dreams be able to enter.

http://www.citymetric.com/horizons/ragpickers-and-camembert-delhi-s-divisive-gentrification-3009